Membres de l’équipe : Singo Leiyo, Ahimidiwe Munuo, Olivier Provini, Sina Schlimmer, Cathbert Tomitho; partner organisation in Tanzania: HakiArdhi
Understanding Tanzanian politics through land policies
Whereas the literature on politics in Tanzania and other African contexts is prolific, few authors have provided insights into policies configurations through the lens of public policy analysis. In fact, the cases where scholars specialized on specific policy sectors in African countries systematically use the methodological tools of public policy analysis are rare. The aim of the research program FAPPA is to provide original research results from different policy sectors (natural resource management/land, urban policies, education, social policies, etc.) to fill this gap.
In Tanzania, which is one of the six target countries of the research project, the Service provider of the sectorial analysis deals with land policies. Land policies have a long history in Tanzania and, as in many other African countries, they are strongly politicized. This case study is even more interesting, as the country is currently going through a new phase of land reform. In fact, shortly after the launching of the campaign of the presidential elections in August 2015, the government went into a phase of reviewing the document of the National Land Policy of 1995. Several draft policies have been prepared and presented by the government. However, until now, the process of policy review is still going on.
Even if the ongoing processes shaping the land reform present an attractive research object, the aim of this study is not to provide detailed insights into fabrication and formulation process of the new land policy. Providing an exhaustive analysis of ongoing policy procedures is challenging given the rapid changes within stakeholder constellations and political configurations. Furthermore, an analysis of the complete policy process (from the formulation of the new policy up to its implementation), which is currently shaping the Tanzanian land sector would extent the scope of this study. In order to ensure the feasibility of the study and to provide solid and heuristic results, the Service provider will investigate on one specific aspect of land policy in Tanzania, which is land use planning.
Land use planning in Tanzania has a long history, which dates back to the colonial period, when development conditions and specific land uses became a precondition for obtaining land rights. The postcolonial government also used maps and specific land use management as a tool to govern rural land. In fact, planning land uses was a major instrument of Nyerere’s administration, which was eager to build a state based on villagisation, implying a reorganization of the relation between the population and land in the rural areas. After the collapse of Nyerere’s ujamaa project, urban and rural land use planning was transformed and redefined as a tool to facilitate the establishment of a liberal land market, by “clarifying” land use relations, paving the way for formalized land rights. Several pieces of legislation (i. e. the Agricultural Policy of 1985, the National Land Policy of 1995) and guidelines co-produced by international organizations (such as the FAO) have shaped (village) land use planning as a key tool of land policies in Tanzania. With the adoption of the Land Use Planning Act of 2007, (village) the policy instrument even obtained a specific legal status. In fact, the adoption of the Act coincides with the international wave of land investment in Tanzania, where foreign (and national) companies seek to acquire relatively large plots of land, especially for agricultural investment and speculation. Now, Village Land Use Planning is more and more defined by experts and NGOs, as a potential tool to prevent land grabbing and to protect the interests of local communities.
The aim of this study conducted within the FAPPA project is to give insights in the different policy processes related to land use planning in Tanzania. Based on a state of the art of the literature of land (use planning) policies, the study seeks to identify the key stakeholders in the decision-making process, to analyze the challenges of land use planning by measuring the gap between the formulated policy objectives and the outcomes of policy implementation and to give insights into the design and appropriation of land use plans seen as policy instruments.